Papers in press or submitted for publication

Ni, Q., X. Zhai, C. Wilson, C. Chen, and D. Chen, Submesoscale eddies in the South China Sea, Geophysical Research Letters, submitted.

Wu. Y., D. P. Stevens, I. A. Renfrew, and X. Zhai, The response of the Nordic Seas to wintertime sea-ice retreat, Journal of Climate, submitted.

Thomas, L. N., and X. Zhai, The lifecycle of surface-generated internal waves, Chapter 4 in Ocean Mixing - Drivers, Mechanisms and Impacts edited by Michael Meredith and Alberto Naveira Garabato, submitted.

Yang, Z., X. Zhai, D. P. Marshall, and G. Wang, An idealized model study of eddy energetics in the western boundary 'graveyard', Journal of Physical Oceanography, submitted.

Marshall, D. P., and X. Zhai, Southern Ocean eddy-induced overturning and circumpolar transport inferred from eddy energy and its residence time, Geophysical Research Letters, submitted.

Recently published

2020

Ni, Q., X. Zhai, G. Wang, and C. W. Hughes, Widespread mesoscale dipoles in the global ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, 125, e2020JC016479. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JC016479.

Ni, Q., X. Zhai, G. Wang, and D. P. Marshall, Random movement of mesoscale eddies in the global ocean, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 50, 2341-2357.

Lin, X., X. Zhai, Z. Wang, and D. R. Munday, Southern Ocean wind stress in CMIP5 models: Role of wind fluctuations, Journal of Climate, 33, 1209-1226, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0466.1.

2018

Lin, X., X. Zhai, Z. Wang, and D. R. Munday, Mean, variability and trend of Southern Ocean wind stress: Role of wind fluctuations, Journal of Climate, 31, 3557-3573, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0481.1.

Zhou, S., X. Zhai, and I. A. Renfrew, The impact of high-frequency weather systems on SST and surface mixed layer in the central Arabian Sea, Journal of Geophysical Research, 123, 1091-1104. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JC013609.

2017

Zhai, X., Dependence of energy flux from the wind to surface inertial currents on the scale of atmospheric motions, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 47, 2711-2719.

Zhai, X., The annual cycle of surface eddy kinetic energy and its influence on eddy momentum fluxes as inferred from altimeter data, Satellite Oceanography and Meteorology, 2(2):299.

Munday, D. R., and X. Zhai, The impact of atmospheric storminess on the sensitivity of Southern Ocean circulation to wind stress changes, Ocean Modelling, 115, 14-26.

Li, J., G. Wang, and X. Zhai, Observed cold filaments associated with mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea, Journal of Geophysical Research, 122, doi:10.1002/2016JC012353.

Wu, Y., X. Zhai, and Z. Wang, Decadal-mean impact of including ocean surface currents in bulk formulas on surface air-sea fluxes and ocean general circulation, Journal of Climate, 30, 9511-9525.

2016

Xu, C., X. Zhai, and X.-D. Shang, Work done by atmospheric winds on mesoscale ocean eddies, Geophysical Research Letters, 43, doi:10.1002/2016GL071275. (Supporting Information)

Wu, Y., X. Zhai, and Z. Wang, Impact of synoptic atmospheric forcing on the mean ocean circulation, Journal of Climate, 29, 5709-5724.

Aiki, H., X. Zhai, and R. J. Greatbatch, Energetics of the global ocean: The role of mesoscale eddies, Chapter 4 in Indo-Pacific Climate Variability and Predictability, edited by T. Yamagata and S. Behera, World Scientific Publisher, 109-134.

2015

Zhai, X., Latitudinal dependence of wind-induced near-inertial energy, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 45, 3025-3032.

Munday, D. R., and X. Zhai, Sensitivity of Southern Ocean circulation to wind stress changes: Role of relative wind stress, Ocean Modelling, 95, 15-24.

Dippe, T., X. Zhai, R. J. Greatbatch, and W. Rath, 2015: Interannual variability of wind power input to near-inertial motions in the North Atlantic, Ocean Dynamics, 65, 859-875. Special issue in honour of Richard Greatbatch's 60th birthday.

Sheng, J., C. Wilson, and X. Zhai, Editorial (Topical Collection on Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics: A Scientific Workshop to Celebrate Professor Dr. Richard Greatbatch’s 60th Birthday, Liverpool, UK, 10-11 April 2014), Ocean Dynamics, 65, 1583-1584.

2014

Zhai, X., and D. R. Munday, 2014: Sensitivity of Southern Ocean overturning to wind stress changes: Role of surface restoring time scales, Ocean Modelling, 84, 12-25.

Zhai, X., H. L. Johnson, and D. P. Marshall, 2014: A simple model of the response of the Atlantic to the North Atlantic Oscillation, Journal of Climate, 27, 4052-4069.

Rath, W., R. J. Greatbatch, and X. Zhai, 2014: On the spatial and temporal distribution of near-inertial energy in the Southern Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research, 119, 359-376, doi:10.1002/2013JC009246.

2013

Zhai, X., 2013: On the wind mechanical forcing of the ocean general circulation, Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 6561-6577, doi:10.1002/2013JC009086.

Marshall, D. P., B. Vogel, and X. Zhai, 2013: Rossby rip currents, Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 4333-4337, doi:10.1002/grl.50842.

Thomas, M. D., and X., Zhai, 2013: Eddy-induced variability of the meridional overturning circulation in a model of the North Atlantic, Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 2742-2747, doi:10.1002/grl.50532.

Rath, W., R. J. Greatbatch, and X. Zhai, 2013: Reduction of near-inertial energy through the dependence of wind stress on the ocean-surface velocity, Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 2761-2773, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20198.

Zhai, X., and C. Wunsch, 2013: On the variability of wind power input to the oceans with a focus on the subpolar North Atlantic, Journal of Climate, 26, 3892-3903.

Munday, D. R., and X. Zhai, 2013: Modulation of eddy kinetic energy, temperature variance, and eddy heat fluxes by surface buoyancy forcing, Ocean Modelling, 62, 27-38.

Zhai, X., and D. P. Marshall, 2013: Vertical eddy energy fluxes in the North Atlantic subtropical and subpolar gyres, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 43, 95-103.

2012

Zhai, X., H. L. Johnson, D. P. Marshall, C. Wunsch, 2012: On the wind power input to the ocean general circulation, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 42, 1357-1365.

Zhai, X., and L. Sheldon, 2012: On the North Atlantic ocean heat content change between 1955-70 and 1980-95, Journal of Climate, 25, 3619-3628.

Saenko, O., X. Zhai, W. Merryfield, and W. Lee, 2012: The combined effect of tidally and eddy-driven diapycnal mixing on the large-scale ocean circulation, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 42, 526-538.

2011

Zhai, X., H. L. Johnson, and D. P. Marshall, 2011: A model of Atlantic heat content and sea level change in response to thermohaline forcing, Journal of Climate, 24, 5619-5632.

2010

Greatbatch, R. J., X. Zhai, M. Claus, L. Czeschel, and W. Rath, 2010: Transport driven by eddy momentum fluxes in the Gulf Stream Extension region, Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L24401, doi:10.1029/2010GL045473.

Zhai, X., H. L. Johnson, and D. P. Marshall, 2010: Significant sink of ocean eddy-energy near western boundaries, Nature Geoscience, 3, 608-612.

Greatbatch, R. J., X. Zhai, J. -D. Kohlmann, and L. Czeschel, 2010: Ocean eddy momentum fluxes at the latitudes of the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio extensions as revealed by satellite data, Ocean Dynamics, 60, 617-628.

2009

Zhai, X., R. J. Greatbatch, C. Eden, and T. Hibiya, 2009: On the loss of wind-induced near-inertial energy to turbulent mixing in the upper ocean, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 39, 3040-3045.

2008

Zhai, X., R. J. Greatbatch, and J. -D. Kohlmann, 2008: On the seasonal variability of eddy kinetic energy in the Gulf Stream region, Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L24609, doi:10.1029/2008GL036412.

2007

Greatbatch, R. J., and X. Zhai, 2007: The generalised heat function, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L21601, doi:10.1029/2007GL031427.

Zhai, X., R. J. Greatbatch, and C. Eden, 2007: Spreading of near-inertial energy in a 1/12 model of the North Atlantic Ocean, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L10609, doi:10.1029/2007GL029895. (*AGU Highlighted paper*)

Greatbatch, R. J., X. Zhai, C. Eden, and D. Olbers, 2007: The possible role in the ocean heat budget of eddy-induced mixing due to air-sea interaction, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L07604, doi:10.1029/2007GL029533.

Zhai, X., and R. J. Greatbatch, 2007: Wind work in a model of the northwest Atlantic Ocean, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L04606, doi:10.1029/2006GL028907.

2006

Zhai, X., and R. J. Greatbatch, 2006: Surface eddy diffusivity for heat in a model of the northwest Atlantic Ocean, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L24611, doi:10.1029/2006GL028712.

Zhai, X., and R. J. Greatbatch, 2006: Inferring eddy-induced diffusivity for heat in the surface mixed layer using satellite data, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L24607, doi:10.1029/2006GL027875.

Greatbatch, R. J., and X. Zhai, 2006: The influence of assimilated eddies on the large-scale circulation in a model of the northwest Atlantic ocean, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L02614, doi:10.1029/2005GL025139.

Sheng, J., X. Zhai and R. J. Greatbatch, 2006: Numerical study of the storm-induced circulation on the Scotian Shelf during Hurricane Juan using a nested-grid ocean model, Progress in Oceanography, 70, 233-254. Special issue in honour of Gabe Csanady's 80th birthday.

2005

Zhai, X., R. J. Greatbatch and J. Zhao, 2005: Enhanced vertical propagation of storm-induced near-inertial energy in an eddying ocean channel model, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L18602, doi:10.1029/2005GL023643. (*AGU Highlighted paper*)

Sheng, J., R. J. Greatbatch, X. Zhai, and L. Tang, 2005: A new two-way nesting technique based on the smoothed semi-prognostic method, Ocean Dynamics, 55, 162-177.

Zhai, X., R.J. Greatbatch and J. Sheng, 2005: Doppler-shifted inertial oscillations on a beta-plane, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 35, 1480-1488.

2004

Zhai, X., R. J. Greatbatch and J. Sheng, 2004: Diagnosing the role of eddies in driving the circulation of the northwest Atlantic Ocean, Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L23304, doi:10.1029/2004GL021146.

Zhai, X., R. J. Greatbatch and J. Sheng, 2004: Advective spreading of storm-induced inertial oscillations in a model of the northwest Atlantic Ocean, Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L14315, doi:10.1029/2004GL020084.

Greatbatch, R. J.,  J. Sheng, C. Eden, L., Tang, X. Zhai and J. Zhao, 2004: The semi-prognostic method, Continental Shelf Research, 24/18, 2149-2165.

Zhai, X., J. Sheng and R. J. Greatbatch, 2004: A new two-way nested-grid ocean modelling technique applied to the Scotian Shelf and Slope Water, Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modelling, 342-357.