SOIL MICROMORPHOLOGY REFERENCES -

SAMPLING, SAMPLE PREPARATION and GENERAL MICROSCOPY

Prepared by
Richard Drees
Dept. Soil & Crop Sciences
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77843
E-mail drees@tamu.edu with any comments


This page is maintained by the Geotechincal Microanalysis and Micromorphology Centre, UEA


Table of Contents


SAMPLING FOR MICROMORPHOLOGY

Griffiths, J.C. 1967. Scientific methods in analysis of 
sediments. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Milfred, C.J., F.D. Hole, and J.H. Torrie. 1967. Sampling for 
pedographic modal analysis of an argillic horizon. Soil Sci. Soc. 
Am. Proc. 31:244-247.

Peterson, R.G. and L.D. Calvin. 1986. Sampling. p, 33-51. In A. 
Klute (ed). Methods  of soil analysis, Part 1. Physical and 
mineralogical methods. Agronomy Momograph No. 9. Am. Soc. Agron., 
Madison.

Puentes, R., L.P. Wilding, and L.R. Drees. 1992. Microspatial 
variability and sampling concepts on soil porosity studies in 
Vertisols. Geoderma 53:373-385.

Redlich, G.C. 1940. Determination of soil structure by 
microscopical investigation. Soil Sci. 50:3-13.

Soil Survey Staff. 1992. Soil survey laboratory methods manual. 
Soil survey investigations report No. 42 (version 2.0). USDA-SCS. 
U.S. Gov. Print. Office, Washington, DC.

Vepraskas, M.J., M.T. Hoover, and J. Bouma. 1991. Sampling 
strategies for assessing hydraulic conductivity and water-
conducting voids in saprolite. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55:165-170.

Wilding, L.P. and L.R. Drees. 1983. Spatial var_d@_È
 Ö_È,®ü__ðñ_"                                          "ñ G.F. Hall 
(eds). Pedogenesis and soil taxomomy: 1. Concepts and 
interactions. Elsevier, New York.

Wolcott, J. and M. Church. 1991. Strategies for sampling 
spatially heterogeneous phenomena: the example of river gravels. 
J. Sediment. Petrol. 61:534-543.

SAMPLE DRYING and WATER REPLACEMENT


Chartres, C.J., A.J. Ringrose-Voase, and M. Raupach. 1989. A 
comparison between acetone and dioxane and explanation of their 
role in water replacement in undisturbed soil samples. J. Soil 
Sci. 40:849-863.

Moran, C.J., A.B. McBratney, A.J. Ringrose-Voase, and C.J. 
Chartres. 1989. A method for the dehydration and impregnation of 
clay soil. J. Soil Sci. 40:569-585.

Murphy, C.P. 1982. A comparative study of three methods of water 
removal prior to resin impregnation of two soils. J. Soil Sci. 
33:719-735.

Murphy, C.P. 1985. Faster methods of liquid-phase acetone 
replacement of water from soils and sediments prior to resin 
impregnation. Geoderma 35:39-45.

SAMPLE PREPARATION, IMPREGNATION and METHODOLOGY


Ashley, G.M. 1973. Impregnation of fine-grained sediments with a 
polyester resin: A modification of Altemuler's method. J. 
Sediment. Petrol. 43:298-301.

ASTM. 1988. Standard practice for petrographic examination of 
hardened concrete. No. C856-83. p. 410-422. In ASTM Annual Book 
of Standards.

Baker, C.E. and T.S. Reynolds. 1984. Preparing doubly polished 
sections of temperature sensitive sedimentary rocks. J. Sediment. 
Petrol. 54:635-636.

Brewer, R., J.R. Sleeman, and R.C. Foster. 1983. The fabric of 
Australian soils. p. 439-476. In Soils: an Australian viewpoint. 
CSIRO Division of soils. Academic Press, London.

Boul, S.W. and D.M. Fadness. 1961. A new method of impregnating 
fragil material for thin sectioning. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 
25:253.

Bourbeau, G.A., and K.C. Berger. 1947. Thin sections of soils and 
friable materials prepared by impregnation with plastic 
"Castolite." Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 12:409-412.

Bullock, P., P.J. Loveland, and C.P.Murphy. 1975. A technique for 
selective solution of iron oxides in thin sections of soil. J. 
Soil Sci. 26:247-249.

Cady, J.G., L.P. Wilding and L.R. Drees. 1986. Petrographic 
microscopic techniques. p. 185-218. In A. Klute (ed.) Methods of 
soil analysis, Part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods. 
Agronomy Monograph no. 9 (2nd Ed.). Am. Soc. Agron., Madison.

Cent, J. and R. Brewer. 1971. Preparation of thin sections of 
soil materials using synthetic resins. CSIRO (Aust.) Division of 
Soils, Tech. Paper. No. 7.

Conway, J.S. 1982. A simplified method for impregnation of soils  
and similar clay-rich sediments. J. Sediment. Petrol. 52:650-651.

Crevello, P.D., J.M. Rine, and D.E. Lanesky. 1981. A method for 
impregnating unconsolidated cores and slabs of calcareous and 
terrigenous muds. J. Sediment. Petrol. 51:658-660.

Fox, C.A., R.K. Guertin, E. Dickson, S. Sweeney, R. Protz and 
A.R. Mermut. 1993. Micromorphological methodology for inorganic 
soils. p. 683-709. In M.R.Carver (ed.) Soil Sampling and methods 
of analysis. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton.

Fox, C.A. and L.E. Parent. 1993. Micromorphological methodology 
for organic soils. p. 473-485. In M.R.Carver (ed.) Soil Sampling
and methods of analysis. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton.

Gile, L.H. 1967. A simplified method for preparation of soil thin 
sections. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 41:570-572.

Gillott, J.E. 1974. Methods of sample preparation for 
microstructure analysis of soils. p. 143-164. In Rutherford, G.K. 
(ed). Soil Microscopy. Proceedings of the fourth international 
working-meeting on soil micromorphology. The Limestone Press, 
Kingston, Ontario.

Gorycki, M.A. 1975. Improved adhesions for petrographic thin 
sections. Am. Mineral. 60:719-721.

Guretin, R.K. and G.A. Bourbeau. 1971. Dry grinding of soil thin 
sections. Can. J. Soil Sci. 51:243-248.

Hagni, R.D. 1966. The preparation of thin sections of fragmental 
materials using epoxy resin. Am. Mineral. 51:1237-1242.

Innes, R.P. and D.J. Pluth. 1970. Thin section preparation using 
an epoxy impregnation for petrographic and electron microprobe 
analysis. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 34:483-485.

Ireland, H.A. 1971. The preparation of thin sections. p. 367-383. 
In R.E. Carver (ed.) Procedures in sedimentary petrology. Wiley 
Interscience, New York.

Jim, C.Y. 1985. Impregnation of moist and dry unconsolidated clay 
samples using Spurr resin for microstructural studies. J. 
Sediment. Petrol. 55:597-599.

Jongerius, A. and G. Heintzberger. 1963. The preparation of 
mammoth-sized thin sections. Soil Survey Papers No. 1. 
Netherlands Soil Survey Institute, Wageningen.

Langton, J.E. and G. B. Lee. 1965. Preparation of thin sections 
from moist organic soil materials. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 
29:221-223.

Lindholm, R.C. and D.A. Dean. 1972. Ultra-thin thin sections in 
carbonate petrology: A valuable tool. J. Sediment. Petrol.43:295-297.

Lockwood, W.N. 1950. Impregnating sandstone specimens with 
thermosetting plastics for studies of oil-bearing formations. 
Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. 34:2061-2067.

Mackenzie, A.F. and J.E. Dawson. 1961. The preparation and study 
of thin sections of wet organic soil materials. J. Soil Sci. 
12:142-144.

Middleton, L.T. and M.J. Kraus. 1980. Simple technique for thin-
section preparation of unconsolidated materials. J. Sediment. 
Petrol. 50:622-623.

Miedema, R., T.H. Page, and G.J. van de Wall. 1974. A method to 
impregnate wet soil samples, producing high-quality thin 
sections. Neth. J. Agric. Sci. 22:37-39.

Milligan, G.C. and G.L. Brown. 1973. Mechanical preparation of 
thin sections. Can. Mineral. 12:72-75.

Nentwich, F.W. 1994. Proposed accessories for precision grinding 
of microscope thin-sections. Microscope 42:181-192.

Nentwich, F.W., and R.W. Yole. 1991. Polished thin section 
preparation of fone-grained siliciclastic rocks. J. Sediment. 
Petrol. 61: 624-626.

Ney, O.B., D.A. Dean and R.W. Hinds. 1972. Improved thin section 
techniques for fossil and recent organics. J. Paleontology. 
46:271-275.

Palle, S, D. Chappard, C. Alexandra, and J.B. Orsini. 1985. 
Friable rock embedding in methyl methacrylate for thin-sectioning 
in geological preparations. J. Micro. 141:193-198.

Ringrose-Voase, A.J. 1991. Micromorphology of soil structure: 
Description, quantification, application. Aust. J. Soil Res. 
29:777-813.

Sinkankas, J. 1968. High pressure epoxy impregnation of porous 
materials for thin-section and microprobe analysis. Am Mineral. 
53:339-342.

Takeda H. 1988. A rapid method for preparing thin sections of 
soil organic layers. Geoderma 42:159-164.

Thompson, M.L., J.F. McBride, and R. Horton. 1985. Effects of 
drying treatments on porosity of soil materials. Soil Sci. Soc. 
Am. J. 49:1360-1364.

Tippkotter, R., K. Ritz, and J.F. Darbyshire. 1986. The preparation of 
soil thin sections for biological studies. J. Soil Sci. 37:681-690.

STAINING TECHNIQUES


Choquette, P.W. and F.C. Tursell. 1978. A procedure for making 
the Tital-yellow stain for Mg-calcite perminent. J. Sediment. 
Petrol. 48:639-642.

Dickson, J.A.D. 1965. A modified staining technique for 
carbonates in thin section. Nature 205:587.

Evamy, B.D. 1963. The application of a chemical staining 
technique to a study of dedolomitisation. Sediment. 2:164-170.

Friedman, G.M. 1959. Identification of carbonate minerals by 
staining methods. J. Sediment. Petrol. 29:87-98.

Friedman, G.M. 1971. Staining. p. 511-530. In R.E. Carver (ed). 
Procedures in sedimentary petrology. John Wiley & Sons New York.

Gardner, K.L. 1980. Impregnation technique using colored epoxy to 
define porosity in petrographic thin sections. Can. J. Earth Sci. 
17:1104-1107.

Gross, D.L. and S.R. Moran. 1970. A technique for the rapid 
determination of the light minerals of detrital sands. J. 
Sediment. Petrol. 40:759-761.

Houghton, H.F. 1980. Refined techniques for staining plagioclase 
and alkali feldspars in thin section. J. Sediment. Petrol. 
50:629-631.

Lindholm, R.C. and R.B. Finkelman. 1972. Calcite staining: 
Semiquantitative determination of ferrous iron. J. Sediment. 
Petrol. 42:239-242.

Morris, W.J. 1985. A convenient method of acid etching. J. 
Sediment. Petrol. 55:600.

Muller, G. 1967. Methods in sedimentary petrology. Hafner Pub. 
Co., New York. (section 3.52)

Norman, M.B. 1974. Improved techniques for selective staining of 
feldspar and other minerals using amaranth. U.S. Geol. Survey, J. 
Res. 2:73-79.

Poole, A.B. and A. Thomas. 1975. A staining technique for the 
identification of sulfates in aggregates and concretes. Mineral. 
Mag. 40:315-316.

Postma, J. and H.J. Altemuller. 1990. Bacteria in thin sections 
stained with the fluorescent brightener calcoflur white M2R. Soil 
Biol. Biochem. 22:89-96.

Ruzyla, K. and D.I. Jezek. 1987. Staining method for recognition 
of pore space in thin and polished sections. J. Sediment. Petrol. 
57:777-778.

Soeder, D.J. 1990. Applications of fluorescent microscopy to 
study of pores in tight rocks. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull. 
74:30-40.

Warne, S. St. J. 1962. A quick field or laboratory staining 
technique for the differentiation of the major carbonate 
minerals. J. Sediment. Petrol. 32:29-38.

Yanguas, J.E. and J.J. Dravis. 1985. Blue fluorescent dye 
technique for recongition of microporosity in sedimentary rocks. 
J. Sediment. Petrol. 55:600-602.

BOOKS


(Many of these books have chapters or articles on sampling, 
sample preparation, and interpretation of results. See the book 
index for items of interest)

Bisdom, E.B.A. (ed). 1981. Submicroscopy of soils and weathered 
rocks. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, 
Wageningen.

Bisdom, E.B.A. and J. Dudoux (eds). 1983. Submicroscopic studies 
of soils. Developments in soil science Vol 12. Elsevier Science 
Publishing Co. Inc., New York. (reprinted in Geoderma, vol 30, 
1983).

Brewer, R. 1976. Fabric and mineral analysis of soils. Robert E. 
Krieger Pub. Co., Huntington, New York.

Brewer, R. and J.R. Sleeman. 1988. Soil structure and fabric. 
CSIRO Division of Soils, Adelaide.

Bullock, P. and C.P. Murphy (eds). 1983. Soil micromorphology 1: 
Techniques and applications. AB Academic Press. Berkhamsted, 
Herts. U.K.

Bullock, P. and C.P. Murphy (eds). 1983. Soil micromorphology 2: 
Soil genesis. AB Academic Press. Berkhamsted, Herts. U.K.

Bullock, P. et al. (eds). 1985. Handbook for thin section 
description. WAINE Research Publications. Albrighton, 
Wolverhampton, U.K.

Courty, M.A., P. Goldberg, and R. Macphail. 1989. Soils and 
micromorphology in archaeology. Cambridge University Press, New 
York.

Douglas, L.A. (ed). 1990. Soil micromorphology: A basic and applied
science. Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. New York.

Douglas, L.A. and M.L. Thompson (eds). 1985. Soil micromorphology 
and soil classification. SSSA Special Publication no. 15. Soil 
Sci. Soc. Am., Madison.

Erlin, B. and D.C. Stark (eds). 1990. Petrograpgy applied to 
concrete and concrete aggregates. ASTM, Philadelphia.

FitzPatrick, E.A. 1980. The micromorphology of soils. A manual 
for the preparation and description of thin sections of soils. 
Dept. of Soil Science, Univ, of Aberdeen, U.K.

FitzPatrick, E.A. 1984. Micromorphology of soils. Chapman & Hall, 
New York.

FitzPatrick, E.A. 1993. Soil microscopy and micromorphology. John 
Wiley & Sons, New York.

Fedoroff, N., L.M. Bresson, and M.A. Courty (eds). 1987. Soil 
Micromorphology. Proceedings of the VIIth international working 
meeting on soil micromorphology. Association Francaise pour 
l'Etude du Sol. Paris.

Fleischer, M., R.E. Wilcox, and J.J. Matzko. 1984. Microscopic 
determinations of the nonopaque minerals. U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 
1627. U.S. Gov. Print. Office, Washington, DC.

Humphries, D.W. 1992. The preparation of thin sections of rocks, 
minerals, and ceramics. Microscopy Handbooks 24. Oxford 
University Press, New York.

Kubiena, W.L. 1938. Micropedology. Collegiate Press, Inc., Ames, 
Iowa.

Kubiena, W.L. 1970. Micromorphological features of soil 
geography. Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, NJ.

MacKenzie, W.S. and C. Guilford. 1980. Atlas of rock-forming 
minerals in thin section. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Mermut, A.R. (ed). 1987. Micromorphology and submicroscopical 
studies of North American soils. Geoderma Vol. 40, Nos. 1-2 
(special issue).

Miedema, R. and A.R. Mermut. 1990. Soil micromorphology: an 
annotated bibliography 1968-1986. Wallingford: CAB International 
for ISSS.

Murphy, C.P. 1986. Thin section preparation of soils and 
sediments. AB Academic Publishers. Berkhamsted, Herts, U.K.

Nahon, D. 1991. Introduction to the petrology of soils and 
chemical weathering. John Wiley & Sons. New York.

Osmond, D.A. and P. Bullock (eds). 1970. Micromorphological 
techniques and applications. Agricultural Research Council, Soil 
Survey Technical Monograph No. 2. Harpenden, U.K.

Rutherford, G.K. (ed). 1974. Soil Microscopy. Proceedings of the 
fourth international working-meeting on soil micromorphology. The 
Limestone Press, Kingston, Ontario.

Scholle, P.A. 1978. A color illustrated guide to carbonate rock 
constituents, textures, cements, and porosities. AAPG Memoir 27. 
Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa.

Scholle, P.A. 1979. A color illustrated guide to constituents, 
textures, cements, and porosities of sandstones and associated 
rocks. AAPG Memoir 28. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa.

Smart, P. and N.K. Tovey. 1981. Electron microscopy of soils and 
sediments: examples. Oxford University Press, New York.

Smart, P. and N.K. Tovey. 1982. Electron microscopy of soils and 
sediments: techniques. Oxford University Press, New York.

Stoiber, R.E. and S.A. Morse. 1994. Crystal identification with 
the polarizing microscope. Chapman & Hall, New York.

Stoops, G. and H. Eswaran (eds). 1986. Soil Micromorphology. Van 
Nostrand Reinhold Soil Science Series (a collection of classic 
and modern papers).


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